Universal Banking – Answer For The Best Banking Design?

1.1 INTRODUCTION

In recent years, universal banking has been growing its popularity in Indonesia. Mandiri Bank, for example, has taken strategy to become Indonesia’s universal bank; this bank has also initiated to develop an integrated financial risk system in terms of sounding financial performance and increasing shareholder value. In Germany, and most developed countries in Europe, universal banks have initiated its operations since nineteen century. There is mounting evidence that in those countries, universal banks have taken an important part in the development of real sectors and the financial system. In those countries, the growing numbers of universal banking practices are really supported by the regulation of central of bank.

Despite, in The United States, they are strict to regulate universal banks by blocking commercial banks from engaging in securities and stock markets practices. They argued that the practice of universal banking might be harmful for the financial system. ((Boyd et.al, 1998) cited in Cheang, 2004) The “risk” might be the key reason why the central bank of The U.S is worried about the universal banking system. Since, if the central of bank allowed banks to adjust their operation to be universal banks, the relationship among, banks, financial and stock markets would be closer. Consequently, this would give an uncertainty to the banks condition and performance. For example, if there were a disaster in stock market, banks would get problems in their financial positions. Thus, they would tend to be insolvent.

In addition universal banks would also threaten the market share of other specialized institutions, because more customers would choose universal banks that offer more option to their investment. Hence, more specialized institutions are likely to be ruined in the U.S financial industry.

One majoring factor, which is triggering a bank to be universal bank, is to increase the profit by enlarging their market share. According to João A. C. Santos (1998) universal bank itself can be defined as the financial institution, which enlarges its service range in terms of offering a variety of financial products and services in one site. Thus, by operating universal banking, banks could get a greater opportunity to expand to another financial area, such as : financial securities, insurance, hedge funds and etc.

Although the trend of banks has recently tended to universal banks, it is undoubtedly true that universal banks would also face further risks because a wide range of financial services is strongly associated with increasing risks and escalating monitoring costs. These are the major concerns why banks have to implement more advance technology in terms of financial risk management. Moreover, the practices of universal banks would cause significant risks to economy’s payment system. Since, the operation of universal banks connects closely to the financial and stock markets that are very fluctuate in a short term.

To win in the tight competition among financial institutions, banks have to alter their maneuver to lead in the market. Universal bank could be the wise choice for the bank manager, because they can attract more customers with a wide range of services. Furthermore, by altering their operation to the universal banking system, banks would get benefits from the efficiency and economies of scale.

In order to understand about the universal banking practices, this paper would examine the exclusive matters, which related to the risks and benefits in a universal bank. Moreover, this paper would also focus the whole impact of this institution to the financial system and the economy as a whole.

1.2 PROFITS AND COSTS IN UNIVERSAL BANKING: IMPLICATIONS FOR INDIVIDUAL BANKS

General problem related to financial intermediation, include universal banks and another type of banks, is about asymmetric information . It is the main problem that causes costs to increase and influence the performance of financial institutions. In Universal banks, the problems that would increase are slightly different with specialized banks; they are similar in that they should cope the risks problem associated with their financial position. Although, in universal banks, the risks are more bigger due to the wide range of financial instruments that they organized. Therefore, banks have to increase their spending on monitoring costs that are more complicated than specialized institutions or conventional banks.

Possible answer why more banks sacrifice to the escalating risks and transform it operation into the universal banking is that they want to compete and expand their market share, in order to seek a greater opportunity profits by serving more choices to their customers. Many banks has experienced a great performance after they alter their operation, the main concerns are that they could reach better economies of scale which can reduce the amount of spending in operational costs and also a greater opportunity to get more profits. The research finding which was conducted by Vender, R. (2002, cited in Cheang, 2004) about the efficiency of revenue in financial conglomerates and the level of both profit and cost in universal banking, has proved that both financial conglomerates and universal banking contain good performance in several indicators of bank profitability. His finding also suggests that the sustained expansion of financial conglomerates and universal banking practices may increase efficiency in the financial system.

This opinion is strengthen by another experts, like : George Rich and Christian Walter (1993). They state that universal banks which posse benefits over specialized institutions, are able to take advantage of reduction in the average cost of production and scope in banking. It is essential for banks that operate on a international level and in order to fulfill customer needs with a variety of financial services. They also mention a classic example how universal banks in some countries, such as : Switzerland, Germany and more European countries has experienced benefits by operating universal banking. In addition, they also state that the fear if universal bank would threaten specialized institutions has not proven. In Switzerland and Germany, for example, specialized institutions could achieve a better improvement in terms of cooperating with big banks. Universal banks are one of potential market channel which can sell their products directly to the customers, so specialized institutions also get additional return due to the increases in the number of universal banks. Therefore, this proves that universal banks do not threat other institutions; in fact, they support specialized institutions to market their products.

According to Fohlin, universal banking would lead to a bank’s concentration due to the increases the number of branch. Based on Germany’s experience, such branching-based expansion has led to the efficiency in banking because it could increase economies of scale in advertising and marketing, and open an enormous opportunity to enhance diversification and steadiness for banks.

A universal bank has unique position to tackle asymmetric information. As stated by Joao A. C. Santos (1998), that a universal bank has potential benefits on the reduction of agency cost and acquires profits due to information advantages. Although in other sides, universal banking also face problems related to the cost, conflict of interest and safety and soundness. But the default risk, which is generally happened in financial intermediation, would decrease substantially because universal banks are easier to control over their customers. Most of lenders in universal banks are their customers, so they can understand about the capacity of the customers from the information that they gather.

Nicholas Cheang (2004) also points out how universal banks could reduce a crucial problem in financial institution, asymmetric information. He argued that they could preserve a close relationship with their borrowers, by gathering more relevant information to make an important decision for investment. Their advantageous positions also vital to optimize the distribution of fund allocation, because banks have already known which investment that would give more margins to them. So, they don’t need to worry too much about the risk.

1.3 UNIVERSAL BANKS AND THE STABILITY IN THE FINANCIAL SYSTEM

Financial institution plays a vital role in terms of mobilizing funds in the economy. Consequently, stability in financial system is really important to manage by government in order to prevent wider implications to the real sectors. Financial disasters which happened in most countries in Asia in 1997 are the classic examples how importance to save banks to recover the economy.

As the financial supermarkets, which are handling a variety of financial instruments, they must face a greater risk than specialized institutions. As a consequence, this institution needs to be monitored closely in order to prevent more implications to the economy. According to Benston (1994), the escalating risks in universal banking would lead to a great problem because it can cause generous distress in the financial system. Hence, it will greatly increase the risk to the economy’s payment system. In another term, Rime and Strioh (2001) who examine the financial system in Switzerland in which universal banking are becoming more important in this country, state that difficulty in monitoring large universal banks is a major concern. This is the reason why universal bank has to spend more money in monitoring cost and develop an advanced system in information technology. In other words, it could say that the consequence of inefficient monitoring could lead to financial instability. (Cheang, 2004)

A wider range of universal banks in financial system makes the fund channels of banks to the customer are larger than specialized institutions. So, the economy will improve because universal banks will support more funding. This can be seen by the fact that a universal bank practice in Germany has triggered the progress of some enterprises performance in this country. (Stiglitz, 1985). It is understandable that when the allocation of fund can distribute widely and effectively to the potential enterprises, the economy will improve. In this context, universal banks have played as the key institution which mobilize fund to the potential lender.

Edwards (1996), has also proved that a universal bank is not just significantly contributed to economy from the external funds that they provide, but also from the improvement of the information flows. (cited in Cheang, 2004) Therefore, this proves that universal banks have played a significant role in terms of reducing the default risk by providing important information about the lender or customers. Furthermore, the safety of the financial system would be improved by the existence of universal banks.

1.4 CONCLUSION

The development of universal banks has to in line with the policy direction of central bank, because it is important to keep the stability of financial system and the economy as whole. There are three important areas that must be concerned related to universal bank operations, such as : the strengthened of capital and advanced risk management system. Consequently, in order to manage universal bank, people need to be aware about the unique of the risk type in universal banking. Furthermore, policy maker must also consider about the implication of universal banks in financial system.

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Guide To Auto Windshield Replacement

You may think that small chipping on your windshield does not need replacement but they can really develop into big cracks in the future. The damaged windshield can also impede your vision which can be very dangerous. You may also find yourself on the bad side of the law if your windows are blemished with nicks or chips.

Some minor damages such as nicks, scratches, and chips can be easily repaired using glass polishing techniques. Resin can also be applied by professionals Windshield Company. Experts have advanced tools and technologies that are far beyond what you can do on your own.

But when do you know of whether to have your windshield replaced or repaired? The size the place in which the damage has occurred is very important and plays a very important role in the integrity of the glass. Most companies that offer these services are capable of fixing the damages that are as a result of chips up to about three inches in size. Most of the repair shops have the techniques that are capable of repairing larger blemishes but professionals recommend having your windshield replaced if the marks are very large.

Most of the damages that occur on the side of the windshield are difficult to control and they spread very quickly. If you come to see a crack in your windshield developing each and every day, you should consider replacing it. If the chips develop on the driver’s side of vision, this is a warranty that you need to have the windshield replaced. If you attempt to have the chips this side repaired, distortion will occur which will definitely affect the visibility. As soon as you notice any damage on your windshield, you should consult from an expert as soon as you can.

You can get your insurer cover for your windshield repairs. Almost all insurances offer coverage for auto glass replacements. Repairs may be less costly than doing the replacements. They are about four times cheaper compared to the costs of replacements. Due to this, your insurance company will assist you by waiving your deductible and covering the entire cost of the windshield repair.

All windshield replacements work different from each other. Most of the insurance companies will require you to pay for the deductible and it will be their responsibility to cover the remaining costs. However, the cost of auto glass replacement greatly depends on the make of your vehicle, year and the size of the glass. You can also be charged depending on the company that you get the service from. It is advisable to get the services from windshield replacement companies that getting them from the dealers because the dealers are a bit expensive.

When in search of companies that deal with the auto glass replacement services, you will have several options. Most of these facilities specialize in auto glass services and they will assess the damage and attempt a safe repair before recommending the windshield replacement.

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What You Need To Know about Good Debt and Bad Debt

From time to time many people usually have to go through debt and in this article, you will find out how the different types of that include good and bad debt normally differ. The moment you take debt and it is able to increase your net worth or assist you to bring in more money then it can be categorized as good debt since it brings value. A good debt is normally used by individuals to deal with unforeseen changes that may require financial attention or basically to manage finances. A mortgage loan is one of the good debts since it normally has low interest and an individual can benefit from it by selling the house at a higher price and making extra money from it. A mortgage loan is seen to be a good debt as long as an individual is able to manage the repayments comfortably. Bad debt, on the other hand, is whereby an individual gets into debt through buying goods or services which are not able to add long-term value to them. As you read on you will find out how bad debts can be more straining to the individual as opposed to bringing more income or value to them.

Payday loans fall in the category of debt and this is because they normally come with very high-interest rates and these strains an individual and ties them down into financial debt. Another bad debt includes credit cards and this is because they have very high-interest rates and one only gets to pay minimum payments and therefore it can end up growing over the years without bringing any value to the individual. This is why individuals are normally advised to take necessary debts and try to avoid high-interest rates that might lead to being financially constrained. For you to find out how you can select good debt, read more here.

We are going to find out how an individual is able to be assisted and ensure that they go for good debts that are more of investments and will be able to bring value to their lives. When going for debt it is essential to go for investments such as car loans, mortgage loans, and student loans because they will be able to add value since they are investments. It is important to do your calculations well before taking up any debt so that you can make sure that you will be in a position to make timely repayments. In this discussion, we have been able to find out how different types of debt are able to affect an individual’s life and why one should ensure they avoid high-interest debt.

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